The Nazca Theories
The Nazca Theories
Purpose: Archeologists, ethnologists and anthropologists have studied the ancient Nazca culture and the whole area to try to determine the purpose of the lines and figures. One theory is that the Nazca people created them to be seen by their gods in the sky. Kosok and Reiche advanced a purpose related to astronomy and cosmology: the lines were intended to act as a kind of observatory, to point to the places on the distant horizon where the sun and other celestial bodies rose or set. Many prehistoric indigenous cultures in the Americas and elsewhere constructed earthworks that combined such astronomical sighting with their religious cosmology, as did the later Mississippian culture at Cahokia in present-day United States. Another example is our own Stonehenge. But, Gerald Hawkins and Anthony Agene, experts in archaeoastronomy, concluded in 1990 that there was insufficient evidence to support such an astronomical explanation.
In 1985, the archaeologist Johan Reinhard published archaeological, ethnographic and historical data demonstrating that worship of mountains and other water sources predominated in Nazca religion and economy from ancient to recent times. He theorised that the lines and figures were part of religious practices involving the worship of deities associated with the availability of water, which directly related to the success and productivity of crops. He interpreted the lines as sacred paths leading to places where these deities could be worshiped. The figures were symbols representing animals and objects meant to invoke the gods' aid in supplying water. But, the precise meanings of many of the individual geoglyphs remain unsolved as of 2009.
Henri Stierlin, a Swiss art historian specialising in Egypt and the Middle East, published a book in 1983 linking the Nazca Lines to the production of ancient textiles which archeologists have found wrapping mummies of the Paracas culture. He contended that the people may have used the lines and trapezes as giant, primitive looms to fabricate the extremely long strings and wide pieces of textile that are typical of the area. By his theory, the figurative patterns (smaller and less common) were meant only for ritualistic purposes.
Alternative theories: Some individuals propose alternative theories. Jim Woodmann believes that the Nazca Lines could not have been made without some form of manned flight to see the figures properly. Based on his study of available technology, he suggests that a hot air balloon was the only possible means of flight. To test this hypothesis, Woodmann made a hot-air balloon using materials and techniques which he understood were available to the Nazca people. The balloon flew, after a fashion. Most scholars have rejected Woodman's thesis, because of the lack of any evidence of such balloons.
Swiss author Erich von Daniken suggests the Nazca lines and other complex constructions represent higher technological knowledge than he believes existed when the glyphs were created. Von Daniken maintains that the Nazca lines in Peru are runways of an ancient airfield that served beings from another culture. Von Daniken's claims, however, are not substantiated by any archaeological evidence and are not supported by scholars.
Maria Reiche's protege Phillis Pitluga, an atronomer at the Adler Planetarium and Astronomy Museum, believes, based on computer aided studies of star alignments, that the giant spider figure is an anamorphic diagram of the Orion. She further suggests that three of the straight lines leading to the figure were used to track the changing declinations of the three stars of Orion's Belt but does not take into account the other twelve lines. Aveni has commented on her work, saying "I really had trouble finding good evidence to back up what she contended. Pitluga never laid out the criteria for selecting the lines she chose to measure, nor did she pay much attention to the archaeological data Clarkson and Silverman had unearthed. Her case did little justice to other information about the coastal cultures, save applying, with subtle contortions, Urtons representations of constellations from the highlands. As historian Jacquctta Hawkes might ask: "Was she getting the pampa she desired?"
Environmental concerns: People trying to preserve the Nazca Lines are concerned about threats of pollution and erosion caused by deforestation in the region. "The Lines themselves are superficial, they are only ten to thirty centimeters deep and could be washed away........ Nazca has only ever received a small amount of rain. But now there are great changes to the weather all over the world. The Lines cannot resist heavy rain without being damaged." -- Viktoria Nikitzki of the Maria Reiche Centre. After flooding and mudslides in the area in mid-February 2007, Mario Olaechea Aquije, archaeological resident from Peru's National Institute of Culture and a team of specialists surveyed the area. He said, "The mudslides and heavy rains did not appear to have caused any significant damage to the Nazca Lines," but the nearby Southern Pan-American Highway did suffer damage, and "the damage done to the roads should serve as a reminder to just how fragile these figures are."
The Southern Pan-American Highway (which cut across the Lizard).
Theories: Toribio Mejia Xespe, a Peruvian doctor and anthropologist was the first scientist, in 1927, to show interest in what he called "great Incan ceremonial artifacts".
Michael Coe believes the Nazca Lines are sacred paths to walk by specific rites. The primary lines were an offering for elders, heaven and mountain deities who gave them water for their fields.
Erich von Daniken suggested, in his 1968 book, Chariots of the Gods, that the lines were built by ancient astronauts as a landing strip. But the soft clay soil and layer of brown and black rocks in the Nazca desert would seem an unsuitable site for landing and were blown away by the power of rocket propulsion. The aliens left - never to return - leaving the people confused. Like in the modern cargo cults they tried to call the Gods back by drawing lines, figures and trapezes.
Robin Edgar believed that the Nazca Figures were inspired by, and intended to be seen by, the (so-called) Eye of God that is manifested during total solar eclipses. An extraordinary series of solar eclipses coincided with the construction of the Nasca lines. Some Lines are aligned with the winter solstice, a less spectacular but more regular, death and rebirth of the Sun God.
The Code of Carl
Munck - The Ancient Geomatria of Numbers --The Nazca Line
ground markings locate themselves on The Code Matrix system. Nazca
Lines and Archaeocryptography The ancient sites around the world are
very precisely positioned on a global coordinate system in relation to the
position of the Great Pyramid at Giza. The positions of the sites are given in
the geometry of their construction. A very ancient system of numbers was used in
the system, which we will call Gematria. Gematrian numbers are found in ancient
myths and religions, including the Bible. Gematrian numbers were used in systems
of weights and measures by ancient peoples, including the Greeks, the Egyptians,
the Persians, the Babylonians and the Romans. The Code system uses mathematical
constants, such as pi and the radian. The system also uses conventions that are
still in use, such as the 360 degree circle, 60 minute degree, 60 second minute,
the base-ten numbering system, the 12-inch foot and the 5280-foot mile.
A close up of the hands of the Monkey, showing four fingers on the right hand - as did Maria Reiche - and five on the left hand
Simone Waisbard stated that the drawing of Nazca are a giant astronomical calendar. Further the Nazca-line-system was used to measure the precipitation value. Figures, especially seabirds, have a connection to the meteorological prophecy system of the Nazca-Culture. Her ideas for the trapezoid formations: places for holy animals before sacrifice them, or field claims connected with filter galleries, observatories or places for ritual ceremonies of the different clans.
Alan F. Alford concluded that the Nazca-Lines was made by Negroid Slaves of the Tihuanaco Culture. After a revolution the Negroid population destroyed some figure, this is the explanation for overdrawn zigzag-formations. Later this people went in northern direction and founded Chavin and the Olmec culture.
Robert Bast linked the lines to the Flood Stories in his book A Memory of the Deluge. The animal, plant and human-shaped figures are lying together on the ground as a memorial place of the big flood.
Gilbert de Jong wrote A Nazcan Zodiac. He traveled to Nazca and measured the GGF by GPS. He obtained a length of the square side of about one hundred and seventy feet. In the formation he recognised a Zodiac.
Markus Reindel's Dowsing Theory says that the Nazca Figures are markers for a subterranean waterflow. Trapezoids show the broadness of the water stream, zigzag lines show where they end, lines show into direction of the puquitos. He explains the nature of the figures by rod-dowsing (to find the subterranean water) and shamanstic flights (to overview the figures).
Ellie's Theories: The Nazca lines seem to depict various kingdoms: Man, Aquatic, Avian, Beasts, among others that almost depict a blueprint of the journey on humanity in the alchemy of time. The major Nazca Lines follow the universal archetypes found throughout the world. I do not see them as a landing strip for returning space ships and creator gods, who have promised every civilization they will return, but never will.
As human consciousness is going through a process of evolution - the lines are one of many reminders and triggers of who we are and where we are going. Creation is part of a geometric blueprint that repeats in cycles of time created by the same consciousness. The key is scared geometry and understanding the holographic nature of our reality. The Nazca Lines will remain an enigma till the end of time along with other tangible objects placed here to awaken us.
ALL IN ALL A NIFTY MYSTERY BUT NOT ALIENS
AN IMPONDERABLE, ANCIENT PUZZLE